Win32/NT/Linux
Einrichtung eines lokalen Apache-Web-Servers
J. Bertram

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  1. Vom Sinn eines lokalen WEB-Servers

      Ein WEB-Server dient der Bereitstellung von Informationen. Dies kann von einer Schule zur Darstellung des Schulprofils oder aber auch zur Ablage von Daten genutzt werden, auf die im Unterricht zugegriffen werden kann, z.B. ein selbsterstelltes Lexikon oder Wörterbuch oder ähnliches. Da Schulen i.d.R. mit dem Internet über eine ISDN-Wählleitung verbunden sind, kollidiert unter wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten betrachtet, der eine Zweck mit dem anderen.

      Wird die sog. Homepage extern auf dem BelWue-Server abgelegt, können zwar von weltweit her rund um die Uhr die WEB-Seiten besucht werden ohne dass der Schule dadurch Kosten entstehen, jedoch ein Arbeiten mit dort abgelegten Daten erfordert eine kostenpflichtige Wählverbindung.

      Wird dagegen die Homepage lokal auf einem Server im eigenen LAN abgelegt, kann ohne Kostenaufwand mit diesen Daten gearbeitet werden, aber der weltweite Zugriff kann immer nur dann stattfinden, wenn die Schule gerade 'online' ist, wodurch die Repräsentation doch erhebliche Einschränkung erfährt.

      Zur Lösung dieses Widerspruchs kann ein lokaler WEB-Server eingerichtet und der Inhalt der WEB-Seiten von Hand oder automatisch auf den Belwue-Server gespiegelt werden. Dies erfordert zwar mehr Speicherplatz bei der Schule, was sich aber durch die Gebührenersparnis bald amortisiert haben dürfte.

      Bei der Suche nach geeigneter Software stehen auf den ersten Blick zwei WEB-Server zur Auswahl. Es gibt zum einen das Microsoftprodukt Internet Information Server (lizenzpflichtig und lauffähig unter NT-Server) und zum anderen den weitverbreiteten Quasistandard Apache-WEB-Server, der als Win32/NT-Version und als Linux-Version jeweils kostenlos von Schulen genutzt werden kann.

      Da Belwü vorzugsweise für Schulen kostenfreie Software unterstützt, wird hier Installation und Konfiguration eines Apache-WEB-Servers beschrieben. Dies hat zudem u.U. den Vorteil, dass bei einem Umstieg auf das bekanntlich "fast" kostenlose Betriebssystem Linux für den Betrieb des WEB-Servers kein neues Know-How erworben werden muss, da Windows-Version und Linux-Version nahezu identisch zu konfigurieren sind.

      Der WEB-Server Apache für Win32/NT ist als Version 1.3.9 hier erhältlich, der für Linux ist i.d.R. der jeweiligen Distribution beigefügt oder kann kostenlos aus dem Internet von einem FTP-Server bezogen werden.

  2. Installation

    Eine gute Lösung wäre es, den WEB-Server auf dem Kommunikations-Server zu installieren.(siehe Abbildung)

    1. Win32-Version

      Der Apache muss unter NT mit Administratorrechten installiert werden. Nach dem Download des selbstentpackenden Apache-Archivs ist dieses in einem temporären Verzeichnis auszuführen. Die Installationsroutine fragt noch den Installationspfad ab und in wenigen Minuten ist der Apache installiert. Die Konfigurationsdatei muss mit einem ASCI-Editor wie z.B. Notepad bearbeitet werden. Start und Stopp des WEB-Servers erfolgen in windowsüblicher Weise z.B. durch Verknüpfung mit dem Ordner 'Autostart'. Unter NT gibt es die Möglichkeit den Apache-Server als sog. Service zu starten, damit er beim Ausloggen des Administrators nicht beendet wird.

    2. Linux-Version

      Unter Linux muss der Apache mit Rootrechten installiert werden. Bei der SuSE-Distribution von Linux ist der Apache-Webserver im Paket 'n' enthalten und kann mit Hilfe des Systemtools YAST installiert werden. Danach befindet sich der Server in /sbin/init.d/apache und kann mit

      • /sbin/init.d/apache start
      • /sbin/init.d/apache stop



      gestartet bzw. gestoppt werden.

      Die Konfigurationsdatei befindet sich in /etc/httpd.conf und kann mit einem ASCII-Editor wie 'vi' oder dem Texteditor des Midnight-Commanders (mc) bearbeitet werden.



  3. Die Konfigurationsdatei httpd.conf

    Die Konfigurationsdatei des Apache ist selbsterklärend. Mit der vorliegenden httpd.conf wird allerdings nur eine funktionierende Grundkonfiguration erzielt.

    
    
    # begin of httpd.conf
    
    #
    
    # Dies ist die Hauptkonfigurationsdatei des ApacheServers.  
    
    # Sie enthaelt die Konfigurationsanweisungen fuer diesen Server und
    
    # basiert auf der original NCSA-Server Konfigurationsdatei von Rob McCool.
    
    # Einzelheiten hierzu siehe: <URL:http://www.apache.org/docs/> 
    
    #
    
    # Ohne tiefergehendes Verstaendnis sollten an der durch den Installationsprozess 
    
    # erzereugten httpd.conf - ausser bei den hier blau 
    
    # gekennzeichneten Anweisungen - keine Veränderungen vorgenommen werden. 
    
    #
    
    # Nach der Installation des WEB-Servers gelten folgende Pfade, die teilweise
    
    # durch Einträge in die Konfigurationsdatei veränderbar sind.
    
    #
    
    # Win32-Version: 
    
    # ==============
    
    #
    
    # WEB-Server: 		<selbst festgelegter Pfad>/apache/apache.exe
    
    # Konfigurationsdatei: 	<selbst festgelegter Pfad>/apache/conf/httpd.conf
    
    # HTML-Dateien:		<selbst festgelegter Pfad>/apache/htdocs/manual/index.htm
    
    #
    
    # Linux-Version:
    
    # ==============
    
    #
    
    # WEB-Server:		/sbin/init.d/apache
    
    # Konfigurationsdatei:  /etc/httpd.conf
    
    # HTML-Dateien:         /usr/local/httpd/htdocs/index.html   
    
    #
    
    #
    
    # ACHTUNG: Dateinamen die mit einem "/" beginnen (bzw. unter Win32 mit 
    
    #          "Laufwerk:/" beginnen) werden von Apache als absolut betrachtet 
    
    #          und der Server versucht die Dateien genau dort zu finden.
    
    #
    
    #          Bei Dateinamen die NICHT mit "/" beginnen, wird der 
    
    #          'ServerRoot'-Pfad verwendet.
    
    # 
    
    # 	   Beispiel:
    
    #          Wenn ServerRoot auf D:/programme/apache zeigt, wird die Datei 
    
    #          "logs/foo.log" gesucht werden unter "D:/programme/apache/logs/foo.logs"
    
    #
    
    #          Als Trennzeichen bei Laufwerks- und Verzeichnisangaben ist auch
    
    #          unter Win32/NT stets der "/" (forward slash) zu verwenden.
    
    #
    
    #          Wenn eine Laufwerksbezeichnung nicht angegeben ist, wird Apache
    
    #          immer das Laufwerk von ServerRoot als Defaultlaufwerk annehmen.
    
    #          Es wird empfohlen immer absolute Pfad- und Laufwerksangaben zu
    
    #          verwenden um Konfusionen zu vermeiden.
    
    #
    
    #          Fuer eine lauffaehige Standardkonfiguration sollten nur die blau
    
    #          markierten Anweisungen an die spezifischen Gegebenheiten angepasst
    
    #          werden.
    
    #
    
    ### Abschnitt 1: Global Environment
    
    #
    
    # Anweisungen in diesem Abschnitt haben Einfluss auf das
    
    # Gesamtverhalten des Apache-Servers wie. z.B. die Anzahl der konkurrierenden
    
    # Anforderungen die gehandhabt werden koennen oder wo die Konfigurationsdateien
    
    # abgelegt sind.
    
    
    
    # ServerType: ist entweder 'inetd' oder 'standalone'.  Der 'Inetd mode' wird 
    
    # nur von Unix Platforms unterstuetzt. Unter Windows oder Linux ist
    
    # 'standalone' einzutragen.
    
    
    
    ServerType standalone
    
    
    
    
    
    # ServerRoot: Ist die oberste Ebene des Verzeichnisbaumes unter dem
    
    # die Konfigurations-, Error- und Logdateien des Apacheservers residieren.
    
    # Fuegen Sie am Ende des Verzeichnispfades KEINEN Slash (/) an.
    
    
    
    
    
    # Win32/NT-Beispiel
    
    
    
    ServerRoot "d:/programm/apache"
    
    
    
    # Linux-Beispiel
    
    # ServerRoot "/sbin/init.d/apache"
    
    
    
    
    
    # PidFile: The file in which the server should record its process
    
    # identification number when it starts.
    
    
    
    
    
    PidFile logs/httpd.pid
    
    
    
    
    
    # ScoreBoardFile: File used to store internal server process information.
    
    # Not all architectures require this.  But if yours does (you'll know because
    
    # this file will be  created when you run Apache) then you *must* ensure that
    
    # no two invocations of Apache share the same scoreboard file.
    
    #
    
    
    
    ScoreBoardFile logs/apache_status
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    # In der Standardkonfiguration fuehrt der Server folgende Dateien 
    
    # in der hier angegebenen Reihenfolge aus:
    
    # - httpd.conf
    
    # - srm.conf 
    
    # - access.conf
    
    
    
    # Die letzten beiden Dateien sind jetzt bei der vorliegenden Apache-Version 
    
    # leer zubelassen und es ist angeraten aus Gruenden der Vereinfachung alle
    
    # Anweisungen nur in der \apache\conf\httpd.conf vorzunehmen.
    
    
    
    # Die nachfolgend auskommentierten Werte sind bereits als sog. defaults
    
    # in den Server 'eingebaut'.
    
    
    
    # In Sonderkonfiguration werden die Argumente dieser Dateien durch Verwendung
    
    # von "/dev/null" (unter Unix) or "nul" (unter Win32) durch den Server
    
    # ignoriert.
    
    
    
    
    
    # ResourceConfig conf/srm.conf
    
    # AccessConfig conf/access.conf
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    # Timeout: Anzahl von Sekunden bevor ein empfangenes 'time out' akzeptiert 
    
    # oder gesendet wird.
    
    
    
    
    
    Timeout 300
    
    
    
    # KeepAlive: Whether or not to allow persistent connections (more than
    
    # one request per connection). Set to "Off" to deactivate.
    
    
    
    
    
    KeepAlive On
    
    
    
    
    
    # MaxKeepAliveRequests: The maximum number of requests to allow
    
    # during a persistent connection. Set to 0 to allow an unlimited amount.
    
    # We reccomend you leave this number high, for maximum performance.
    
    
    
    
    
    MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    # KeepAliveTimeout: Number of seconds to wait for the next request from the
    
    # same client on the same connection.
    
    
    
    KeepAliveTimeout 15
    
    
    
    
    
    # Apache on Win32 always creates one child process to handle requests.  If it
    
    # dies, another child process is created automatically.  Within the child
    
    # process multiple threads handle incoming requests.  The next two
    
    # directives control the behaviour of the threads and processes.
    
    
    
    # MaxRequestsPerChild: the number of requests each child process is
    
    # allowed to process before the child dies.  The child will exit so
    
    # as to avoid problems after prolonged use when Apache (and maybe the
    
    # libraries it uses) leak memory or other resources.  On most systems, this
    
    # isn't really needed, but a few (such as Solaris) do have notable leaks
    
    # in the libraries.  For Win32, set this value to zero (unlimited)
    
    # unless advised otherwise.
    
    #
    
    
    
    MaxRequestsPerChild 0
    
    
    
    
    
    # Number of concurrent threads (i.e., requests) the server will allow.
    
    # Set this value according to the responsiveness of the server (more
    
    # requests active at once means they're all handled more slowly) and
    
    # the amount of system resources you'll allow the server to consume.
    
    
    
    ThreadsPerChild 50
    
    
    
    
    
    # Listen: Allows you to bind Apache to specific IP addresses and/or
    
    # ports, in addition to the default. See also the 
    
    # directive.
    
    
    
    #Listen 3000
    
    #Listen 12.34.56.78:80
    
    
    
    
    
    # BindAddress: You can support virtual hosts with this option. This directive
    
    # is used to tell the server which IP address to listen to. It can either
    
    # contain "*", an IP address, or a fully qualified Internet domain name.
    
    # See also the  and Listen directives.
    
    
    
    #BindAddress *
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    # Dynamic Shared Object (DSO) Support
    
    #
    
    # To be able to use the functionality of a module which was built as a DSO you
    
    # have to place corresponding `LoadModule' lines at this location so the
    
    # directives contained in it are actually available _before_ they are used.
    
    # Please read the file README.DSO in the Apache 1.3 distribution for more
    
    # details about the DSO mechanism and run `apache -l' for the list of already
    
    # built-in (statically linked and thus always available) modules in your Apache
    
    # binary.
    
    #
    
    # Note: The order in which modules are loaded is important.  Don't change
    
    # the order below without expert advice.
    
    
    
    # LoadModule anon_auth_module modules/ApacheModuleAuthAnon.dll
    
    # LoadModule cern_meta_module modules/ApacheModuleCERNMeta.dll
    
    # LoadModule digest_module modules/ApacheModuleDigest.dll
    
    # LoadModule expires_module modules/ApacheModuleExpires.dll
    
    # LoadModule headers_module modules/ApacheModuleHeaders.dll
    
    # LoadModule proxy_module modules/ApacheModuleProxy.dll
    
    # LoadModule rewrite_module modules/ApacheModuleRewrite.dll
    
    # LoadModule speling_module modules/ApacheModuleSpeling.dll
    
    # LoadModule status_module modules/ApacheModuleStatus.dll
    
    # LoadModule usertrack_module modules/ApacheModuleUserTrack.dll
    
    
    
    #
    
    # ExtendedStatus controls whether Apache will generate "full" status
    
    # information (ExtendedStatus On) or just basic information (ExtendedStatus
    
    # Off) when the "server-status" handler is called. The default is Off.
    
    #
    
    
    
    #ExtendedStatus On
    
    
    
    
    
    ### Section 2: 'Main' server configuration
    
    #
    
    # The directives in this section set up the values used by the 'main'
    
    # server, which responds to any requests that aren't handled by a
    
    #  definition.  These values also provide defaults for
    
    # any  containers you may define later in the file.
    
    #
    
    # All of these directives may appear inside  containers,
    
    # in which case these default settings will be overridden for the
    
    # virtual host being defined.
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # If your ServerType directive (set earlier in the 'Global Environment'
    
    # section) is set to "inetd", the next few directives don't have any
    
    # effect since their settings are defined by the inetd configuration.
    
    # Skip ahead to the ServerAdmin directive.
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Port: The port to which the standalone server listens.
    
    #
    
    
    
    Port 80
    
    
    
    #
    
    # ServerAdmin: Your address, where problems with the server should be
    
    # e-mailed.  This address appears on some server-generated pages, such
    
    # as error documents.
    
    #
    
    
    
    ServerAdmin <alias>@<maildomain>
    
    
    
    #
    
    # ServerName allows you to set a host name which is sent back to clients for
    
    # your server if it's different than the one the program would get (i.e., use
    
    # "www" instead of the host's real name).
    
    #
    
    # Note: You cannot just invent host names and hope they work. The name you 
    
    # define here must be a valid DNS name for your host. If you don't understand
    
    # this, ask your network administrator.
    
    # If your host doesn't have a registered DNS name, enter its IP address here.
    
    # You will have to access it by its address (e.g., http://123.45.67.89/)
    
    # anyway, and this will make redirections work in a sensible way.
    
    #
    
    #ServerName new.host.name
    
    
    
    # ServerName 141.87.210.226
    
    
    
    ServerName web.ab.schule-bw.de
    
    
    
    #
    
    # DocumentRoot: The directory out of which you will serve your
    
    # documents. By default, all requests are taken from this directory, but
    
    # symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to other locations.
    
    #
    
    
    
    DocumentRoot "d:/programm/apache/htdocs/"
    
    
    
    
    
    # Each directory to which Apache has access, can be configured with respect
    
    # to which services and features are allowed and/or disabled in that
    
    # directory (and its subdirectories). 
    
    #
    
    # First, we configure the "default" to be a very restrictive set of 
    
    # permissions.  
    
    #
    
    
    
        Options FollowSymLinks
    
        AllowOverride None
    
    
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Note that from this point forward you must specifically allow
    
    # particular features to be enabled - so if something's not working as
    
    # you might expect, make sure that you have specifically enabled it
    
    # below.
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    
    
    # Hier muss derselbe Pfad wie bei DocumentRoot angegeben werden!!!
    
    #
    
    
    
    <Directory "d:/programm/apache/htdocs/">
    
    
    
    # This may also be "None", "All", or any combination of "Indexes",
    
    # "Includes", "FollowSymLinks", "ExecCGI", or "MultiViews".
    
    #
    
    # Note that "MultiViews" must be named *explicitly* --- "Options All"
    
    # doesn't give it to you.
    
    #
    
        Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    
    
    
    #
    
    # This controls which options the .htaccess files in directories can
    
    # override. Can also be "All", or any combination of "Options", "FileInfo", 
    
    # "AuthConfig", and "Limit"
    
    #
    
        AllowOverride None
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Controls who can get stuff from this server.
    
    #
    
        Order allow,deny
    
        Allow from all
    
    
    
    
    
    #
    
    # UserDir: The name of the directory which is appended onto a user's home
    
    # directory if a ~user request is received.
    
    #
    
    # Under Win32, we do not currently try to determine the home directory of
    
    # a Windows login, so a format such as that below needs to be used.  See
    
    # the UserDir documentation for details.
    
    #
    
    
    
    UserDir "d:/programm/apache/users/"
    
    
    
    #
    
    # DirectoryIndex: Name of the file or files to use as a pre-written HTML
    
    # directory index.  Separate multiple entries with spaces.
    
    #
    
    
    
    DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm start.htm default.htm
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AccessFileName: The name of the file to look for in each directory
    
    # for access control information.
    
    #
    
    AccessFileName .htaccess
    
    
    
    #
    
    # The following lines prevent .htaccess files from being viewed by
    
    # Web clients.  Since .htaccess files often contain authorization
    
    # information, access is disallowed for security reasons.  Comment
    
    # these lines out if you want Web visitors to see the contents of
    
    # .htaccess files.  If you change the AccessFileName directive above,
    
    # be sure to make the corresponding changes here.
    
    #
    
    
    
        Order allow,deny
    
        Deny from all
    
    
    
    
    
    #
    
    # CacheNegotiatedDocs: By default, Apache sends "Pragma: no-cache" with each
    
    # document that was negotiated on the basis of content. This asks proxy
    
    # servers not to cache the document. Uncommenting the following line disables
    
    # this behavior, and proxies will be allowed to cache the documents.
    
    #
    
    #CacheNegotiatedDocs
    
    
    
    #
    
    # UseCanonicalName:  (new for 1.3)  With this setting turned on, whenever
    
    # Apache needs to construct a self-referencing URL (a URL that refers back
    
    # to the server the response is coming from) it will use ServerName and
    
    # Port to form a "canonical" name.  With this setting off, Apache will
    
    # use the hostname:port that the client supplied, when possible.  This
    
    # also affects SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT in CGI scripts.
    
    #
    
    
    
    UseCanonicalName On
    
    
    
    #
    
    # TypesConfig describes where the mime.types file (or equivalent) is
    
    # to be found.
    
    #
    
    
    
    TypesConfig conf/mime.types
    
    
    
    #
    
    # DefaultType is the default MIME type the server will use for a document
    
    # if it cannot otherwise determine one, such as from filename extensions.
    
    # If your server contains mostly text or HTML documents, "text/plain" is
    
    # a good value.  If most of your content is binary, such as applications
    
    # or images, you may want to use "application/octet-stream" instead to
    
    # keep browsers from trying to display binary files as though they are
    
    # text.
    
    #
    
    DefaultType text/plain
    
    
    
    #
    
    # The mod_mime_magic module allows the server to use various hints from the
    
    # contents of the file itself to determine its type.  The MIMEMagicFile
    
    # directive tells the module where the hint definitions are located.
    
    # mod_mime_magic is not part of the default server (you have to add
    
    # it yourself with a LoadModule [see the DSO paragraph in the 'Global
    
    # Environment' section], or recompile the server and include mod_mime_magic
    
    # as part of the configuration), so it's enclosed in an  container.
    
    # This means that the MIMEMagicFile directive will only be processed if the
    
    # module is part of the server.
    
    #
    
    
    
        MIMEMagicFile conf/magic
    
    
    
    
    
    #
    
    # HostnameLookups: Log the names of clients or just their IP addresses
    
    # e.g., www.apache.org (on) or 204.62.129.132 (off).
    
    # The default is off because it'd be overall better for the net if people
    
    # had to knowingly turn this feature on, since enabling it means that
    
    # each client request will result in AT LEAST one lookup request to the
    
    # nameserver.
    
    #
    
    HostnameLookups Off
    
    
    
    #
    
    # ErrorLog: The location of the error log file.
    
    # If you do not specify an ErrorLog directive within a 
    
    # container, error messages relating to that virtual host will be
    
    # logged here.  If you *do* define an error logfile for a 
    
    # container, that host's errors will be logged there and not here.
    
    #
    
    ErrorLog logs/error.log
    
    
    
    #
    
    # LogLevel: Control the number of messages logged to the error.log.
    
    # Possible values include: debug, info, notice, warn, error, crit,
    
    # alert, emerg.
    
    #
    
    LogLevel warn
    
    
    
    #
    
    # The following directives define some format nicknames for use with
    
    # a CustomLog directive (see below).
    
    #
    
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
    
    LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
    
    LogFormat "%{Referer}i -> %U" referer
    
    LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent
    
    
    
    #
    
    # The location and format of the access logfile (Common Logfile Format).
    
    # If you do not define any access logfiles within a 
    
    # container, they will be logged here.  Contrariwise, if you *do*
    
    # define per- access logfiles, transactions will be
    
    # logged therein and *not* in this file.
    
    #
    
    CustomLog logs/access.log common
    
    
    
    #
    
    # If you would like to have agent and referer logfiles, uncomment the
    
    # following directives.
    
    #
    
    #CustomLog logs/referer.log referer
    
    #CustomLog logs/agent.log agent
    
    
    
    #
    
    # If you prefer a single logfile with access, agent, and referer information
    
    # (Combined Logfile Format) you can use the following directive.
    
    #
    
    #CustomLog logs/access.log combined
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Optionally add a line containing the server version and virtual host
    
    # name to server-generated pages (error documents, FTP directory listings,
    
    # mod_status and mod_info output etc., but not CGI generated documents).
    
    # Set to "EMail" to also include a mailto: link to the ServerAdmin.
    
    # Set to one of:  On | Off | EMail
    
    #
    
    ServerSignature On
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Aliases: Add here as many aliases as you need (with no limit). The format is 
    
    # Alias fakename realname
    
    #
    
    # Note that if you include a trailing / on fakename then the server will
    
    # require it to be present in the URL.  So "/icons" isn't aliased in this
    
    # example, only "/icons/"..
    
    #
    
    
    
    Alias /icons/ "d:/programm/apache/icons/"
    
    
    
    #
    
    # ScriptAlias: This controls which directories contain server scripts.
    
    # ScriptAliases are essentially the same as Aliases, except that
    
    # documents in the realname directory are treated as applications and
    
    # run by the server when requested rather than as documents sent to the client.
    
    # The same rules about trailing "/" apply to ScriptAlias directives as to
    
    # Alias.
    
    #
    
    
    
    ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ "d:/programm/apache/cgi-bin/"
    
    
    
    #
    
    # "d:/programm/apache/cgi-bin" should be changed to whatever your ScriptAliased
    
    # CGI directory exists, if you have that configured.
    
    #
    
    
    
        AllowOverride None
    
        Options None
    
    
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Redirect allows you to tell clients about documents which used to exist in
    
    # your server's namespace, but do not anymore. This allows you to tell the
    
    # clients where to look for the relocated document.
    
    # Format: Redirect old-URI new-URL
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Directives controlling the display of server-generated directory listings.
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # FancyIndexing is whether you want fancy directory indexing or standard
    
    #
    
    IndexOptions FancyIndexing
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AddIcon* directives tell the server which icon to show for different
    
    # files or filename extensions.  These are only displayed for
    
    # FancyIndexed directories.
    
    #
    
    AddIconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip
    
    
    
    AddIconByType (TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*
    
    AddIconByType (IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*
    
    AddIconByType (SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*
    
    AddIconByType (VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*
    
    
    
    AddIcon /icons/binary.gif .bin .exe
    
    AddIcon /icons/binhex.gif .hqx
    
    AddIcon /icons/tar.gif .tar
    
    AddIcon /icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv
    
    AddIcon /icons/compressed.gif .Z .z .tgz .gz .zip
    
    AddIcon /icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps
    
    AddIcon /icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf
    
    AddIcon /icons/text.gif .txt
    
    AddIcon /icons/c.gif .c
    
    AddIcon /icons/p.gif .pl .py
    
    AddIcon /icons/f.gif .for
    
    AddIcon /icons/dvi.gif .dvi
    
    AddIcon /icons/uuencoded.gif .uu
    
    AddIcon /icons/script.gif .conf .sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl
    
    AddIcon /icons/tex.gif .tex
    
    AddIcon /icons/bomb.gif core
    
    
    
    AddIcon /icons/back.gif ..
    
    AddIcon /icons/hand.right.gif README
    
    AddIcon /icons/folder.gif ^^DIRECTORY^^
    
    AddIcon /icons/blank.gif ^^BLANKICON^^
    
    
    
    #
    
    # DefaultIcon is which icon to show for files which do not have an icon
    
    # explicitly set.
    
    #
    
    DefaultIcon /icons/unknown.gif
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AddDescription allows you to place a short description after a file in
    
    # server-generated indexes.  These are only displayed for FancyIndexed
    
    # directories.
    
    # Format: AddDescription "description" filename
    
    #
    
    #AddDescription "GZIP compressed document" .gz
    
    #AddDescription "tar archive" .tar
    
    #AddDescription "GZIP compressed tar archive" .tgz
    
    
    
    #
    
    # ReadmeName is the name of the README file the server will look for by
    
    # default, and append to directory listings.
    
    #
    
    # HeaderName is the name of a file which should be prepended to
    
    # directory indexes. 
    
    #
    
    # The server will first look for name.html and include it if found.
    
    # If name.html doesn't exist, the server will then look for name.txt
    
    # and include it as plaintext if found.
    
    #
    
    ReadmeName README
    
    HeaderName HEADER
    
    
    
    #
    
    # IndexIgnore is a set of filenames which directory indexing should ignore
    
    # and not include in the listing.  Shell-style wildcarding is permitted.
    
    #
    
    IndexIgnore .??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS CVS *,v *,t
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AddEncoding allows you to have certain browsers (Mosaic/X 2.1+) uncompress
    
    # information on the fly. Note: Not all browsers support this.
    
    # Despite the name similarity, the following Add* directives have nothing
    
    # to do with the FancyIndexing customisation directives above.
    
    #
    
    AddEncoding x-compress Z
    
    AddEncoding x-gzip gz tgz
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AddLanguage allows you to specify the language of a document. You can
    
    # then use content negotiation to give a browser a file in a language
    
    # it can understand.  Note that the suffix does not have to be the same
    
    # as the language keyword --- those with documents in Polish (whose
    
    # net-standard language code is pl) may wish to use "AddLanguage pl .po" 
    
    # to avoid the ambiguity with the common suffix for perl scripts.
    
    #
    
    AddLanguage en .en
    
    AddLanguage fr .fr
    
    AddLanguage de .de
    
    AddLanguage da .da
    
    AddLanguage el .el
    
    AddLanguage it .it
    
    
    
    #
    
    # LanguagePriority allows you to give precedence to some languages
    
    # in case of a tie during content negotiation.
    
    # Just list the languages in decreasing order of preference.
    
    #
    
    LanguagePriority en fr de
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AddType allows you to tweak mime.types without actually editing it, or to
    
    # make certain files to be certain types.
    
    #
    
    # For example, the PHP3 module (not part of the Apache distribution)
    
    # will typically use:
    
    #
    
    #AddType application/x-httpd-php3 .phtml
    
    #AddType application/x-httpd-php3-source .phps
    
    
    
    AddType application/x-tar .tgz
    
    
    
    #
    
    # AddHandler allows you to map certain file extensions to "handlers",
    
    # actions unrelated to filetype. These can be either built into the server
    
    # or added with the Action command (see below)
    
    #
    
    # If you want to use server side includes, or CGI outside
    
    # ScriptAliased directories, uncomment the following lines.
    
    #
    
    # To use CGI scripts:
    
    #
    
    #AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
    
    
    
    #
    
    # To use server-parsed HTML files
    
    #
    
    #AddType text/html .shtml
    
    #AddHandler server-parsed .shtml
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Uncomment the following line to enable Apache's send-asis HTTP file
    
    # feature
    
    #
    
    #AddHandler send-as-is asis
    
    
    
    #
    
    # If you wish to use server-parsed imagemap files, use
    
    #
    
    #AddHandler imap-file map
    
    
    
    #
    
    # To enable type maps, you might want to use
    
    #
    
    #AddHandler type-map var
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Action lets you define media types that will execute a script whenever
    
    # a matching file is called. This eliminates the need for repeated URL
    
    # pathnames for oft-used CGI file processors.
    
    # Format: Action media/type /cgi-script/location
    
    # Format: Action handler-name /cgi-script/location
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # MetaDir: specifies the name of the directory in which Apache can find
    
    # meta information files. These files contain additional HTTP headers
    
    # to include when sending the document
    
    #
    
    #MetaDir .web
    
    
    
    #
    
    # MetaSuffix: specifies the file name suffix for the file containing the
    
    # meta information.
    
    #
    
    #MetaSuffix .meta
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Customizable error response (Apache style)
    
    #  these come in three flavors
    
    #
    
    #    1) plain text
    
    #ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo.
    
    #  n.b.  the (") marks it as text, it does not get output
    
    #
    
    #    2) local redirects
    
    #ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
    
    #  to redirect to local URL /missing.html
    
    #ErrorDocument 404 /cgi-bin/missing_handler.pl
    
    #  N.B.: You can redirect to a script or a document using server-side-includes.
    
    #
    
    #    3) external redirects
    
    #ErrorDocument 402 http://some.other_server.com/subscription_info.html
    
    #  N.B.: Many of the environment variables associated with the original
    
    #  request will *not* be available to such a script.
    
    
    
    #
    
    # The following directives disable keepalives and HTTP header flushes.
    
    # The first directive disables it for Netscape 2.x and browsers which
    
    # spoof it. There are known problems with these.
    
    # The second directive is for Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0b2
    
    # which has a broken HTTP/1.1 implementation and does not properly
    
    # support keepalive when it is used on 301 or 302 (redirect) responses.
    
    #
    
    BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
    
    BrowserMatch "MSIE 4\.0b2;" nokeepalive downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
    
    
    
    #
    
    # The following directive disables HTTP/1.1 responses to browsers which
    
    # are in violation of the HTTP/1.0 spec by not being able to grok a
    
    # basic 1.1 response.
    
    #
    
    BrowserMatch "RealPlayer 4\.0" force-response-1.0
    
    BrowserMatch "Java/1\.0" force-response-1.0
    
    BrowserMatch "JDK/1\.0" force-response-1.0
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Allow server status reports, with the URL of http://servername/server-status
    
    # Change the ".your_domain.com" to match your domain to enable.
    
    #
    
    #
    
    #    SetHandler server-status
    
    #    Order deny,allow
    
    #    Deny from all
    
    #    Allow from .your_domain.com
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Allow remote server configuration reports, with the URL of
    
    #  http://servername/server-info (requires that mod_info.c be loaded).
    
    # Change the ".your_domain.com" to match your domain to enable.
    
    #
    
    #
    
    #    SetHandler server-info
    
    #    Order deny,allow
    
    #    Deny from all
    
    #    Allow from .your_domain.com
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # There have been reports of people trying to abuse an old bug from pre-1.1
    
    # days.  This bug involved a CGI script distributed as a part of Apache.
    
    # By uncommenting these lines you can redirect these attacks to a logging 
    
    # script on phf.apache.org.  Or, you can record them yourself, using the script
    
    # support/phf_abuse_log.cgi.
    
    #
    
    #
    
    #    Deny from all
    
    #    ErrorDocument 403 http://phf.apache.org/phf_abuse_log.cgi
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Proxy Server directives. Uncomment the following line to
    
    # enable the proxy server:
    
    #
    
    #ProxyRequests On
    
    
    
    #
    
    # Enable/disable the handling of HTTP/1.1 "Via:" headers.
    
    # ("Full" adds the server version; "Block" removes all outgoing Via: headers)
    
    # Set to one of: Off | On | Full | Block
    
    #
    
    #ProxyVia On
    
    
    
    #
    
    # To enable the cache as well, edit and uncomment the following lines:
    
    # (no cacheing without CacheRoot)
    
    #
    
    #CacheRoot "d:/programm/apache/proxy"
    
    #CacheSize 5
    
    #CacheGcInterval 4
    
    #CacheMaxExpire 24
    
    #CacheLastModifiedFactor 0.1
    
    #CacheDefaultExpire 1
    
    #NoCache a_domain.com another_domain.edu joes.garage_sale.com
    
    
    
    ### Section 3: Virtual Hosts
    
    #
    
    # VirtualHost: If you want to maintain multiple domains/hostnames on your
    
    # machine you can setup VirtualHost containers for them.
    
    # Please see the documentation at 
    
    # for further details before you try to setup virtual hosts.
    
    # You may use the command line option '-S' to verify your virtual host
    
    # configuration.
    
    
    
    #
    
    # If you want to use name-based virtual hosts you need to define at
    
    # least one IP address (and port number) for them.
    
    #
    
    #NameVirtualHost 12.34.56.78:80
    
    #NameVirtualHost 12.34.56.78
    
    
    
    #
    
    # VirtualHost example:
    
    # Almost any Apache directive may go into a VirtualHost container.
    
    #
    
    #
    
    #    ServerAdmin webmaster@host.some_domain.com
    
    #    DocumentRoot /www/docs/host.some_domain.com
    
    #    ServerName host.some_domain.com
    
    #    ErrorLog logs/host.some_domain.com-error_log
    
    #    CustomLog logs/host.some_domain.com-access_log common
    
    #
    
    
    
    #
    
    #
    
    #
    
    # End of /apache/conf/httpd.conf
    
    
    
    
    
    



  4. Zugriff auf den lokalen WEB-Server

    Üblicherweise wird zur Ansteuerung einer WEB-Seite im WEB-Browser als Zieladresse ein symbolischer Name (z.B.: www.belwue.de) eingetragen. Wenn im lokalen Netz nun aber mangels Existenz eines lokalen Nameservers lokal keine Namensauflösung erfolgen kann, wird ein externer DNS-Server wie. z.B. 129.143.2.4 hierfür herangezogen, was die Öffnung der ISDN-Verbindung zur Folge hat. Ein Effekt der beim Zugriff auf einen lokalen WEB-Server unerwünscht ist.

      Abhilfe

      Angenommen der symbolische Name des lokalen WEB-Servers sei abc-schule.xy.schule-bw.de und er hätte die IP-Adresse 141.87.210.227, dann sollte zur Vermeidung des unerwünschten Effekts für einen Aufrauf dieses WEB-Servers im Browser als Zieladresse die IP-Adresse eingetragen werden:

          http://141.87.210.227/



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